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Das UEFA-Champions-League-Finale zwischen Juventus Turin und Real Madrid war die Endspiel-Begegnung der Champions-League-Saison / Juli Cristiano Ronaldo steigt nach der WM erst später ins Teamtraining von Juventus Turin ein. Der Jährige hat laut "Gazzetta dello Sport" die. Juli Der Transfer von Weltfußballer Cristiano Ronaldo vom Champions-League- Sieger Real Madrid zu Juventus Turin ist perfekt. Die "Königlichen".

According to a Legambiente report from , Turin is the first Italian city as far as structures and policies on childcare are concerned.

As the Savoy family refused to allow her to be buried next to her husband in the Pantheon , her children had a mausoleum built for her in a similar form and on a smaller scale in Turin, next to the road to the Castello di Mirafiori.

The circular copper-domed neoclassical monument, surmounted by a Latin cross and surrounded by a large park, was designed by Angelo Dimezzi and completed in In , the city proper had a population of about ,, which is a significant increase on the census figure.

This result is due to a growing immigration from Southern Italy and abroad. Around 18 per cent of the population is under 20 years of age, while 22 per cent is over The median age is Turin is a major automotive and aerospace centre, home of Fiat Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino; Turin Italian Automobiles Factory , part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles group, the sixth largest automotive company in the world.

In addition to the 17th-century Royal Palace , built for Madama Reale Christine Marie of France the official residence of the Savoys until there are many palaces, residences and castles in the city centre and in the surrounding towns.

In recent years, Turin has become an increasingly popular tourist destination, ranking rd in the world and 10th in Italy in , with about , international arrivals.

It is home to what is regarded as one of the largest collections of Egyptian antiquities outside of Egypt. In it received more than , visitors.

The city is home to the well-known Shroud of Turin: It is kept in the royal chapel of the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist in the city centre.

The origins of the shroud and its image are still the subject of intense debate among scientists, theologians, historians and researchers.

It is popularly believed to be a depiction of Jesus Christ , however this matter is still controversial, as there seems to be a sufficient amount of historical and scientific evidence supporting the idea that it is, or is not, the Holy Face of Jesus.

After it had been little more than a town for a long time, in the Duke Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy made Turin the capital of his domains.

The Duke had ambition to transform the city into a major artistic and cultural capital, and in the following centuries numerous artists were to work at the Savoy court, especially architects and planners like Carlo di Castellamonte and his son Amedeo , Guarino Guarini and, in the 18th century, Filippo Juvarra and Benedetto Alfieri.

As for the painting and the visual arts, Turin became a point of reference, especially in the 20th century. In those years there was a strong artistic influence of designer Armando Testa.

Artists currently operating in the city include Ugo Nespolo and Carol Rama. It burned down in and was rebuilt after WW II.

A literary centre for many centuries, Turin began to attract writers only after the establishment of the court of the Dukes of Savoy.

One of the most famous writers of the 17th century was Giambattista Marino , which in moved to the court of Charles Emmanuel I. Marino suffered an assassination attempt by a rival, Gaspare Murtola , and was later imprisoned for a year because of gossip that he had said and written against the duke.

Perhaps, because of this, in Marino left Turin and moved to France. In the next century Torino hosted the poet Vittorio Alfieri from Asti for a while.

The situation was very different in the 19th century, especially since the city became a point of reference for Italian unification and, subsequently, the capital of the Kingdom of Italy.

Indeed, in those years Tommaseo, Settembrini and John Meadows resided in the city. A major literary and cultural woman of that time was Olimpia Savio.

Baricco was also among the founders of the Scuola Holden , dedicated to writing techniques teaching. In the local Piedmontese language has a literary tradition, with names such as Nicoletto da Torino , Ignas Isler , author of epic poems, and Eduard Calv.

The International Book Fair is one of the most important fairs of its kind in Europe. RAI has had a production centre in Turin since The city has a rich sporting heritage as the home to two historically significant football teams: Juventus has the larger fan base, especially all over Italy and worldwide, while Torino enjoys a greater support in the city itself.

The two clubs contest the oldest derby in Italy, the Derby della Mole or the Turin derby. In , in the Superga air disaster , a plane carrying almost the whole team crashed into the Basilica of Superga in the Turin hills.

Torino currently plays its home games at the Stadio Olimpico "Grande Torino" , named after the team of the s, which was the host stadiums for the FIFA World Cup and the venue of the XX Winter Olympics ; moreover the team recently rebuilt the historic Stadio Filadelfia , used for games of the youth teams and trainings of the first squad, and seat of the team museum.

The city hosted the final stages of the EuroBasket Turin hosted the Winter Olympics in February Turin is the largest city to have ever hosted a Winter Olympics, and was the largest metropolitan area to host them at the time.

The City was awarded with the title of European Capital of Sport Turin is the Italian city where film chromatography was first established.

As such, it forms the birthplace of Italian cinema. The first Italian cinema screening occurred in Turin in March In November , Italian filmmakers performed the first cinema screening of a film before a fee-paying audience.

By the start of the 20th century especially after , a number of the first Italian films were aired in Turin.

Examples include Giovanni Pastrone Cabiria , in , one of the first blockbusters in history. The Turin-based company Ambrosio Film , established in by Arturo Ambrosio , was one of the leading forces in Italian cinema and boosted the importance of the city as a filmmaking destination.

The company, noted in particular for its historical epics, produced a large number of films until it was dissolved in During the s and 30s, Turin hosted a number of film productions and major film studios film houses , such as the Itala film , Aquila and Fert Studios.

Today Turin is one of the main cinematographic and television centres in Italy, thanks to the role of the Turin Film Commission that reports the production of many feature films, soap operas and commercials.

Turin also became the capital of the tsar for The Demons of St. Moreover, the city is also known for the so-called bicerin , a traditional hot drink made of espresso , drinking chocolate and whole milk served layered in a small rounded glass.

Local cuisine also features a particular type of pizza, so-called pizza al padellino or pizza al tegamino , which is basically a small-sized, thick-crust and deep-dish pizza typically served in several Turin pizza places.

Since the mids, Piedmont has also benefited from the start of the Slow Food movement and Terra Madre , events that have highlighted the rich agricultural and vinicultural value of the Po valley and northern Italy.

Another established university in the city is the Polytechnic University of Turin , ranking among Top 50 universities in the world and 1 in Italy in the fields of engineering, technology and computer science "Academic Ranking of World Universities" published by Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

Moreover, the city hosts three small English language post-secondary institutions: The city currently has a large number of rail and road work sites.

Although this activity has increased as a result of the Winter Olympics , parts of it had long been planned.

Some of the work sites deal with general roadworks to improve traffic flow, such as underpasses and flyovers, but two projects are of major importance and will radically change the shape of the city.

The railroad previously ran in a trench, which will now be covered by a major boulevard running from North to South of Turin, in a central position along the city.

Other important stations are Stura , Rebaudengo , Lingotto and Madonna di Campagna railway stations, though not all of them belong to the layout of the Spina Centrale.

The other major project is the construction of a subway line based on the VAL system, known as Metrotorino. This project is expected to continue for years and to cover a larger part of the city, but its first phase was finished in time for the Olympic Games , inaugurated on 4 February and opened to the public the day after.

A new extension of the so-called Linea 1 "Line 1" is expected in the near future, reaching both Rivoli up to Cascine Vica hamlet in the Western belt of Turin and Piazza Bengasi in the Southeast side of the city.

Furthermore, a Linea 2 is in the pipeline that will connect the south-western district of Mirafiori with Barriera di Milano in the north end. The main street in the city centre, Via Roma , runs atop a tunnel built during the fascist era when Via Roma itself was totally refurbished and took on its present-day aspect.

The tunnel was supposed to host the underground line but it is now used as an underground car park. A project to build an underground system was ready in the s, with government funding for it and for similar projects in Milan and Rome.

As of [update] a bicycle sharing system , the ToBike , is operational. The metropolitan area is served by Turin metropolitan railway service.

Central districts are served by tram , lines 3,4,9 are light-rail. The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Turin, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 65 min.

The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 5. Turin is twinned with: The 6th district arrondissement of Turin is twinned with:.

Media related to Turin at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Turin disambiguation.

For other uses, see Torino disambiguation. Comune in Piedmont, Italy. List of mayors of Turin. Residences of the Royal House of Savoy.

List of places of worship in Turin. List of radio stations in Turin. Gruppo Torinese Trasporti and ToBike. List of people from Turin. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy.

Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed. Archived from the original PDF on 1 October Retrieved 30 April Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 31 August Retrieved 26 December Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 3 February Archived from the original on 10 October Retrieved 14 December The Economic History of Italy Retrieved 9 May Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 6 May Retrieved 11 December Record mensili dal " in Italian.

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Retrieved 8 February Retrieved 8 December Archived from the original on 10 December They demonstrated that the photochemical reactions caused by exposing linen to ultraviolet light could reproduce the main characteristics of the Shroud image, such as the shallowness of the coloration and the gradient of the color, which are not reproducible by other means.

When subsequently illuminated with a UV lamp, the irradiated linen fabrics behaved like the linen of the Shroud. They also determined that UV radiation changes the crystalline structure of cellulose in a similar manner as aging and long-duration background radiation.

Paolo Di Lazzaro, the lead researcher, indicated in an e-mail interview that " In November , F. They concluded that the rapid changes in the body image intensity are not anomalies in the manufacturing process of the linen but that they can be explained with the presence of aromas or burial ointments.

A study published in a theological journal followed a "Minimal Facts approach" to determine which hypothesis relating to the image formation process "is the most likely".

The study concluded "that the probability of the Shroud of Turin being the real shroud of Jesus of Nazareth is very high". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 22 January This article relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources.

April Learn how and when to remove this template message. History of the Shroud of Turin. Conservation-restoration of the Shroud of Turin.

Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin. Religion portal Christianity portal Catholicism portal Italy portal.

Retrieved 6 June Some twenty years ago this ecumenical dimension of this sacred linen became very evident to me on the night of August 16, , when local judicatory leaders offered their corporate blessing to the Turin Shroud Exhibit and participated in the Evening Office of the Holy Shroud.

Radiocarbon Dating, Second Edition: Left Coast Press, , p. Explicit use of et al. Retrieved 31 July Retrieved 2 March An Archaeological Perspective, By R.

Retrieved 2 January Currie, it is "widely accepted" that "the Shroud of Turin is the single most studied artifact in human history".

Journal of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The Encyclopedia of Christian Civilization. Retrieved 12 April Report on the Shroud of Turin.

Architecture for the shroud: University of Chicago Press. Journal of Biological Photography. Rinaldi, "Il Codice Pray", http: Componimenti poetici sulla Sindone.

Bolla di papa Giulio II Carlo Borromeo a Torino The New York Times. Retrieved 29 March Retrieved 30 March Making sense of a mystery " 31 March Retrieved 19 April Retrieved 9 May Address in Turin Cathedral Speech.

Archived from the original on 11 May Archived from the original on 11 June John Bosco - National Catholic Reporter". Retrieved 24 January Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research.

This paper is significant in that it was presented to the international radiocarbon community shortly before radiocarbon dating was performed on the shroud.

Archived from the original PDF on 4 March Retrieved 10 September Ma Fanti li ha buoni…" [Shroud: Vatican Insider in Italian. Inchieste e interviste [Inquests and interviews].

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Medical World News , 22 December, p. Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 19 December The Shroud , p.

A study in deception". Skeptical Inquirer , Summer , pp. Botany of the Shroud of Turin, An addition concerning new information since the report.

Shroud of Turin Conference, , Ohio. Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage. Vol 11, University of Bologna. Is this holy relic preserved?

A Doctor at Calvary. A Forensic Inquiry , M. Journal of Imaging Science and Technology. The Great Gothic Art Fraud". Report on the Shroud of Turin , Houghton Mifflin, Jumper, Bill Mottern, and Kenneth E.

British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics. Paulist Press, , pp. Brown 15 August Biblical Exegesis and Church Doctrine.

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Lynn, "Digital enhancement of images of the Shroud of Turin", in: Photographic Science and Engineering. Retrieved 17 February Shroud Center of Southern California.

Retrieved 27 March A Critical Compendium [Abstract]". The Journal of Imaging Science and Technology. Retrieved 28 March Archived from the original on 16 April Retrieved 10 April Italian researchers resurrect claim".

Retrieved 29 June Victory in the Canaries. UCL Real contingent predict tight final. Sporting CP and Barcelona Matches Last 16 in our sights Matches Barcelona-Juventus, Champions League Off the pitch Champions League returns to Turin.

Off the pitch Together for Juventus vs Tottenham in UCL Bayern meet the media. UCL Final training session at Vinovo before UCL Bianconeri Barcelona bound.

Real Turin Video

The Shroud of Turin, Could it be Real? (Gary Habermas) Neuer Abschnitt red Stand: Cristiano Ronaldo wechselt zu Juventus Turin Sportschau So oder so wäre ein zusätzlicher Transfer zwischen den beiden Klubs dann durchaus denkbar. Positiv kam der Transfer schon einmal an der Börse an. Allerdings spielte Higuain immerhin sechs Jahre für die "Königlichen" aus Madrid - also doch ein kleiner Bezug. Unklar ist noch, ob Ronaldo am Ausgerechnet Xabi Alonso, der inzwischen als Jugendtrainer bei Real tätig ist, riet Lewandowski kürzlich zu einem Verbleib bei den Bayern - zumindest vorerst. Um Ihnen ein besseres Nutzererlebnis zu bieten, verwenden wir Cookies. Dies gab der spanische Rekordmeister am Dienstagabend bekannt. Die grundsätzliche Infragestellung der Moral der Italiener schien vergessen.

The Taurini were an ancient Celto-Ligurian [15] Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River , in the center of modern Piedmont.

In BC, they were attacked by Hannibal as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the Insubres. The typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city, especially in the neighborhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano Roman Quadrilateral.

The Porta Palatina , on the north side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral. Remains of the Roman-period theater are preserved in the area of the Manica Nuova.

Turin reached about 5, inhabitants at the time, all living inside the high city walls. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire , the town was conquered by the Heruli and the Ostrogoths , recaptured by the Romans , but then conquered again by the Lombards and then the Franks of Charlemagne The Contea di Torino countship was founded in the s and was held by the Arduinic dynasty until While the title of count was held by the Bishop as count of Turin — and — it was ruled as a prince-bishopric by the Bishops.

In — it was a lordship under the Marquess of Montferrat , styled Lord of Turin. At the end of the 13th century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city already had 20, inhabitants.

Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the 15th century when the city was redesigned. The University of Turin was also founded during this period.

Piazza Reale named Piazza San Carlo today and Via Nuova current Via Roma were added along with the first enlargement of the walls, in the first half of the 17th century; in the same period the Palazzo Reale Royal Palace of Turin was also built.

In the second half of that century, a second enlargement of the walls was planned and executed, with the building of the arcaded Via Po, connecting Piazza Castello with the bridge on the Po through the regular street grid.

In , during the Battle of Turin , the French besieged the city for days without conquering it. By the Treaty of Utrecht the Duke of Savoy acquired Sicily , soon traded for Sardinia , and part of the former Duchy of Milan , and was elevated to king; thus Turin became the capital of a European kingdom.

The architect Filippo Juvarra began a major redesign of the city; Turin had about 90, inhabitants at the time.

Turin, like the rest of Piedmont , was annexed by the French Empire in In the following decades, the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia led the struggle towards the unification of Italy.

In , Turin became the capital of the newly proclaimed united Kingdom of Italy [19] until , when the capital was moved to Florence , and then to Rome after the conquest of the Papal States.

The city in that period had , inhabitants. The late 19th century was also a period of rapid industrialization, especially in the automotive sector: The Universal Exposition held in Turin in is often regarded as the pinnacle of Art Nouveau design, and the city hosted the same event in By this time, Turin had grown to , inhabitants.

In the Lingotto Fiat factory was occupied. The Fascist regime put an end to the social unrest, banning trade unions and jailing socialist leaders, notably Antonio Gramsci.

On the other hand, Benito Mussolini largely subsidized the automotive industry, to provide vehicles to the army.

Turin was then a target of Allied strategic bombing during World War II , being heavily damaged in its industrial areas by the air raids.

Turin was not captured by the Allies until the end of Spring Offensive of By the time the vanguard of the armoured reconnaissance units of Brazilian Expeditionary Force reached the city, it was already freed by the Italian Partisans , that had begun revolting against the Germans on 25 April In the postwar years, Turin was rapidly rebuilt.

The number of immigrants was so big that Turin was said to be "the third southern Italian city after Naples and Palermo ". The population soon reached 1 million in and peaked at almost 1.

The exceptional growth gains of the city gained it the nickname of the Automobile Capital of Italy and the Detroit of Italy Turin has been "twinned" with Detroit since In the s and s, the oil and automotive industry crisis severely hit the city, and its population began to sharply decline, losing more than one-fourth of its total in 30 years.

The long population decline of the city has begun to reverse itself only in recent years, as the population grew from , to slightly over , by the end of the century.

In , Turin hosted the Winter Olympic Games. Turin is located in northwest Italy. It is surrounded on the western and northern front by the Alps and on the eastern front by a high hill that is the natural continuation of the hills of Monferrato.

Four major rivers pass through the city: Cfa in contrast to the Mediterranean climate characteristic of the coast of Italy. Winters are moderately cold but dry, summers are mild in the hills and quite hot in the plains.

Rain falls mostly during spring and autumn; during the hottest months, otherwise, rains are less frequent but heavier thunderstorms are frequent.

During the winter and autumn months banks of fog, which are sometimes very thick, form in the plains [22] but rarely on the city because of its location at the end of the Susa Valley.

The highest temperature ever recorded was Turin is split up into 10 boroughs , locally called circoscrizioni ; these do not necessarily correspond to the historical districts of the city, which are rather called quartieri , rioni , borghi , borgate or zone.

The mayor of Turin is directly elected every five years. The current mayor of the city is Chiara Appendino:. Nonetheless the main street of the city centre, Via Roma , was built during the Fascist era from to as an example of Italian Rationalism , replacing former buildings already present in this area.

These blocks were built into a reticular system, composed by austere buildings in clear rationalist style, such as the impressive Hotel Principi di Piemonte and the former Hotel Nazionale in Piazza CLN.

Porches are built in a continuous entablature and marked with double columns, to be consistent with those of Piazza San Carlo. The section of the street between Piazza San Carlo and Piazza Castello was built in eclectic style, with arcades characterised by Serliana -type arches.

To this day Via Roma is the street featuring the most fashionable boutiques of the city. Via Roma crosses one of the main squares of the city: On the northern edge of Via Roma stands Piazza Castello , regarded as the heart of the city.

The half-pedestrianized square hosts some significant buildings such as Palazzo Reale Former Savoy Royal House , the Palazzo Madama which previously hosted the Savoy senate and, for few years, the Italian senate after Italian unification , the former Baroque Teatro Regio di Torino rebuilt in modern style in the s, after being destroyed by fire and the Royal Library of Turin which hosts the Leonardo da Vinci self-portrait.

Moreover, Piazza Castello hosts a Fascist era building, the Torre Littoria , a sort of skyscraper which was supposed to become the headquarters of the Fascist party, although it never served as such.

The square regularly hosts the main open space events of the city, live concerts included. As for the southern part of the street, Via Roma ends in Piazza Carlo Felice and in its Giardino Sambuy , a wide fenced garden right in the middle of the square.

The passengers building was renovated to host a shopping mall and more efficient passenger service offices. However, it is still an example of monumental architecture, with its stately foyer and some Baroque sights, such as the Sala Reale the former Royal waiting room.

In Piazza Castello converge some of the main streets of the city centre. Piazza Vittorio features the most fashionable bars and not far from here, along the Po riverfront, the Murazzi quays used to host several bars and nightclubs open till the morning until a few years ago.

Their recent pedestrianisation has improved their original commercial vocation. In particular, Via Lagrange has recently increased the presence of luxury boutiques.

This street also hosts the Egyptian Museum of Turin , home to what is regarded as one of the largest collections of Egyptian antiquities outside of Egypt.

Via Lagrange and Via Carlo Alberto cross two significant squares of the city, respectively. The square also features the Teatro Carignano , a well-conserved Baroque theatre.

On the other side stands the monumental Biblioteca Nazionale National Library. Not far from Via Po stands the symbol of Turin, namely the Mole Antonelliana , so named after the architect who built it, Alessandro Antonelli.

Construction began in as a Jewish synagogue. Nowadays it houses the National Museum of Cinema and it is believed to be the tallest museum in the world at metres feet.

The building is depicted on the Italian 2-cent coin. It was built during — and is adjacent to an earlier bell tower Annexed to the cathedral is the Chapel of the Holy Shroud , the current resting place of the Shroud of Turin.

The Chapel was added to the structure in —, designed by Guarini. The Basilica of Corpus Domini was built to celebrate an alleged miracle which took place during the sack of the city in , when a soldier was carrying off a monstrance containing the Blessed Sacrament ; the monstrance fell to the ground, while the host remained suspended in air.

The present church, erected in to replace the original chapel which stood on the spot, is the work of Ascanio Vitozzi.

Next to the Turin Cathedral stand the Palatine Towers , an ancient Roman -medieval structure that served as one of four Roman city gates along the city walls of Turin.

This gate allowed access from north to the cardo maximus , the typical second main street of a Roman town. The Palatine Towers are among the best preserved Roman remains in northern Italy.

Close to this site, the 51,square-metre ,square-foot Piazza della Repubblica plays host to the biggest open market in Europe, locally known as mercato di Porta Palazzo Porta Palazzo or Porta Pila are the historical and local names of this area.

West of the Porte Palatine stands the Quadrilatero Romano Roman Quadrilateral , the old medieval district recently renewed.

The current neighbourhood is characterised by its tiny streets and its several medieval buildings and today it is popular for its aperitivo bars and its small shops run by local artisans.

The hub of the Quadrilatero is Piazza Emanuele Filiberto. South of the Quadrilatero Romano stands Via Garibaldi , another popular street of the city.

Large Piazza Statuto is another example of Baroque square with arcades. The new and larger passengers building is situated between Corso Bolzano and Corso Inghilterra and is an example of contemporary architecture, being a metre-long foot and metre-high foot glass and steel structure.

Porta Susa is currently the international central station of the city high speed trains to Paris and it is becoming the central hub of railway transportation of the city, being the station in which local trains so-called Ferrovie Metropolitane , national trains and high-speed national and international trains converge.

What remains of the old medieval and modern fortress of the city, it is a starting point for a tour into the old underground tunnels below the city.

Southeast of the city centre stands San Salvario district, which extends from Corso Vittorio Emanuele II to Corso Bramante and is delimited by the Turin-Genoa railway on the west side and by the Po river on the east side.

The hub of the district is Piazza Madama Cristina which hosts a big open market, while several commercial activities flourish around it.

The celebrated Parco del Valentino is situated in the east side of San Salvario and, albeit not in downtown, it represents kind of central park of Turin.

Thanks to the vicinity to the city centre, the park is very popular among the local people, during the day but also at night, because of the several bars and nightclubs placed here.

From the terraces of Parco del Valentino, many sights of the hills on the other side of the river can be appreciated. In the centre of the park stands the Castello del Valentino , built in the 17th century.

This castle has a horseshoe shape, with four rectangular towers, one at each angle, and a wide inner court with a marble pavement. The ceilings of the false upper floors are in transalpino i.

Another cluster of buildings in the park is the Borgo Medievale Medieval village , a replica of medieval mountain castles of Piedmont and Aosta Valley, built for the International Exhibition.

Another building is the largest synagogue of the city, located in Piazzetta Primo Levi square. Its architecture stands in the main sight of the city, as characterised by four large towers — 27 metres 89 feet high — topped by four onion-shaped domes.

South of Centro stands the Crocetta district, considered one of the most exclusive districts of the city, because of highly rated residential buildings.

The area was built between and replacing the old parade ground , which was moved in the Southern part of the city.

Next to the Museum, another significant residential building previously hosted the head office of Juventus , one of the two main Turin football clubs.

The building, a ,square-metre 1,,square-foot complex, hosts approximately 30, students and is considered one of the major Institutes of Technology of the country — mainly due to the vocation of the city for the industrialization, pushed by the automotive sector.

This institute recently expanded in the western district of Cenisia with additional modern buildings. However, the most popular avenue is Corso De Gasperi , which, albeit smaller than other avenues of the district, hosts one of the most fashionable open markets of the city, the so-called Mercato della Crocetta , in which it is possible to find some discounted branded clothing among the more popular ones.

The Western border of Crocetta is instead an example of contemporary architecture. The huge avenue, made up of Corso Mediterraneo and Corso Castelfidardo , is part of Spina Centrale boulevard and was recently built over the old railway now undergrounded: The East side of the district is also known as Borgo San Secondo and was so named after the church of the same name standing in Via San Secondo , a major street in the neighbourhood.

This area is located near Porta Nuova railway station and is actually older than the rest of the district, featuring several apartment buildings from the late 19th century, to include the birthplace and home of author Primo Levi on Corso Re Umberto.

The market square also hosts the former washhouse and public baths of the neighbourhood, among the oldest examples of their kind in Turin One of the main thoroughfares crossing Borgo San Secondo is Via Sacchi , which serves as an ideal gate to the city centre: South of Via Sacchi , Ospedale Mauriziano is one of the ancient and major hospitals of the city.

Going further southwards, it is possible to appreciate an interesting residential cluster of old public housing gravitating around Via Arquata.

The expansion was possible after under-grounding the railway under Corso Castelfidardo and the subsequent disposal of the old buildings dedicated to the train maintenance present in this area so called Officine Grandi Riparazioni or OGR.

Politecnico expanded its facilities through two huge overpass buildings over the avenue, linked to new buildings on the west side. This cluster of buildings forms an evocative square with a unique architectural style.

Politecnico area extends till Via Boggio with further facilities hosted in the former OGR facilities.

The Institute plans to further build new facilities in the current parking area. North of Politecnico facilities, the main building of the OGR former cluster, which consists in three meters long joint parallel buildings, became recently a big open space which hosts temporary exhibitions and during the hot seasons, its external spaces became a fashionable site to have a typical Italian aperitivo.

The complex was built between and during the reign of Victor Emmanuel II. After being disposed of during the s, the complex was changed into a museum and it is possible to visit its facilities.

An example of contemporary art is the heating plant in Corso Ferrucci , which has been covered with aluminium panels. Another building 19th century , now abandoned, is the former Westinghouse factory of train brakes situated in Via Borsellino.

The remaining part of the district is mainly formed by residential buildings with not significant architectural value.

Industrialization led to consequent population growth in the nearby areas, including Cenisia. Main avenues which are crossing the district are Corso Ferrucci and Corso Racconigi.

This last one is hosting a huge daily open market, the Mercato di Corso Racconigi. This small triangle surrounded by Corso Vittorio Emanuele II , Corso Francia and Corso Inghilterra hosts some high rated residential buildings and is regarded as a prestigious residential neighbourhood by local people.

Among them, one of the most impressive and well-known is the Casa Della Vittoria architect Gottardo Gussoni. Another notable example is Casa Fenoglio-Lafleur.

Both buildings face Corso Francia. The district is also characterised by two massive recent buildings: It was populated since the medieval era, but becomes bigger during the 19th century, prospering around the canal Canale di San Donato , which does not exist any more, currently replaced by the central street of the district, Via San Donato.

The conservation of the street and of this old building influences the straightness of Via San Donato , which makes a slight curve to result in parallel with Via Pacinotti before ending in central Piazza Statuto square.

Main church of the district is the Chiesa di Nostra Signora del Suffragio e Santa Zita , which with its 83 metres feet height of its bell tower, is well known to be the fifth tallest structure in the city of Turin, after the Mole Antonelliana , the Intesa-Sanpaolo skyscraper , the Torre Littoria and the two pennons of the Juventus Stadium.

The legend says, that he wanted to build the tallest bell tower of the town and put a clock on the top, to all the poor people to know the time for free.

The small building near the church, is what remains of Casa Tartaglino , a small residential building which was also extended and modified by Faa di Bruno.

Villino Cibrario in Via Saccarelli is another significant building designed by Barnaba Panizza in The building was equipped with a large garden which was eliminated to host the street.

The neighbourhood has a high concentration of historic buildings in Art Nouveau style designed by architect Pietro Fenoglio among the others, the prestigious Villino Raby in Corso Francia 8.

Among the modern buildings of the district, the most significant one is of course the Torre BBPR Tower which took the name from the architecture office who designed it.

The building is representing the post-rationalism Italian architecture same style of the better known Torre Velasca tower in the city of Milan.

Tower is facing the central Piazza Statuto square. District is crossed by some significant avenues: Also on Corso Svizzer a, stands one of the oldest hospitals of the city, the Ospedale Amedeo di Savoia , specialised in infectious diseases.

Other major avenues are Corso Umbria and Corso Tassoni. Another big avenue, which border the district on its East, is Corso Principe Oddone , which in the past was along the railway to Milan.

Currently the railway has been under-grounded: Northern part of the district was part of the former industrial district of Turin, recently reconverted to a park called Parco Dora.

Differently for other portions of Parco Dora , this part has been totally reconverted to park without letting any evidence of the industrial area except for the cooling tower which stands along Corso Umbria and became a symbol of the park.

Works are completed in the western area, where Corso Mortara has been closed to traffic and moved just a bit northern and covered by an artificial tunnel.

It is possible to access the southern shore of the Dora river. South of the Park, an interesting architecture of different levels is hosting a new shopping mall called Centro Commerciale Parco Dora.

East of Via Livorno , works are still partially in progress, with the Dora river still to be uncovered by a big slab, on which the FIAT plants used to stand.

West of Via Livorno , the Environment Park is a research centre for renewable energy. Aurora is one of the most ancient districts which developed out of the medieval city walls , north of the historical city centre.

It stretches from downtown northern boundaries in Corso Regina Margherita an extended and important thoroughfare of Turin up to Corso Vigevano and Corso Novara in the North Side namely the old excise boundary till the early 20th century ; the western boundary is Corso Principe Oddone now part of the Spina Centrale boulevard and the eastern border is the Dora river.

The district was named Aurora after the so-called cascina Aurora , an old farmstead lying north of the Dora river, right at the intersection between Corso Giulio Cesare and Corso Emilia.

The farmstead has long been demolished and the area has been converted to office buildings, hosting the Turinese textile company Gruppo Finanziario Tessile GFT headquarters until the early 21st century.

Borgo Dora hosts several remarkable places, such as: Piccola Casa della Divina Provvidenza "Little House of the Divine Providence" , also known as Cottolengo , a well-known charitable organization which has been operating for almost years in the city; Arsenale della Pace "Arsenal of Peace" , a former weapons factory that currently hosts the headquarters of SERMIG Servizio Missionario Giovani , a nonprofit association which assists poor and homeless people; Caserma Cavalli "Cavalli Barracks" , one of the most representative buildings of the district, a former barracks topped by a clock tower which now hosts Scuola Holden , a storytelling and performing arts school; the evocative Cortile del Maglio "Mallet Courtyard" , a covered pedestrian area featuring bars and clubs.

The building has replaced the Clothes Market , one of the four covered pavilions of Porta Palazzo market, but unfortunately this glass green-shaded building has been highly criticized because of its lack of usability for commercial activities, albeit an example of contemporary architecture.

Another interesting building at the borders of the neighbourhood is Porta Milano a. To this day, the station is no longer in use as well as the rails up to Piazza Baldissera.

The station building was recently renovated and now hosts some old locomotives, even though it is not open to the public. Unfortunately, the old rails crossing the district are totally disused and neglected, adding decay to the whole area.

Borgo Dora, as many other pockets of Aurora, is characterized by the marked multi-ethnicity of its population, being home to a large community of immigrants from emerging countries.

This neighbourhood hosts the significant architecture of Santuario di Maria Ausiliatrice "Maria Ausiliatrice Sanctuary" in the homonymous square and behind the church stands San Pietro in Vincoli old cemetery.

Overall, the main thoroughfares of the West side of Aurora are Via Cigna , which crosses the district from North to South, Corso Vercelli , a historical avenue starting north of the Dora river, and Corso Principe Oddone , part of the long Spina Centrale boulevard that will be built over the undergrounded Turin-Milan railway.

However, the Spina Centrale project is proceeding slowly because of the lack of funds and the boulevard is still occupied by a large worksite along its span.

Once completed, Aurora district will be connected to Eastern San Donato , thanks to a better connection among the roads of the two adjacent districts i.

As for the rest of Aurora, the district is crossed by an important thoroughfare named Corso Giulio Cesare , a long boulevard that extends from Porta Palazzo up to Turin-Trieste motorway entrance in the Northern urban fringe of Turin.

Albeit not a road, the Dora river is also a significant element for the whole district, since it completely crosses it from West to East. The area north of the river features a mix of old residential buildings and remains of former factories and facilities from the 20th century.

Another disused facility is Astanteria Martini "Martini Emergency Department" in Via Cigna, a former emergency department from the s which has been lying vacant since long.

As for the old residential buildings of the area, this part of Aurora hosts the oldest public housing block of the city, built by Istituto Autonomo Case Popolari IACP in in lieu of an old dilapidated small farm once known as Chiabotto delle Merle.

Despite its run down look, the famous Lavazza coffee company, along with IAAD School of Design, chose this part of the city as the location for their new headquarters, which will be built in a contemporary building dubbed Nuvola "Cloud" right at the borders of Borgo Rossini.

Designed by the architect Gino Zucchi, this project is still a work in progress but excavations in the area revealed the remains of a medieval cemetery and an early Christian basilica; these findings will be preserved and will be shown to the public.

Borgo Rossini hosts a number of businesses, for instance the Robe di Kappa flagship store Kappa is a noted Italian sportswear brand founded in Turin and the Cineporto "Cineport" a.

Borgo Vanchiglia is the historical district: The district is quite popular nowadays because being quite closer to the heart of Turin nightlife Piazza Vittorio Veneto, many bars and restaurants opened recently in this area.

However, Vanchiglia also includes the area called Vanchiglietta , north of Borgo Vanchiglia. A notable and unusual building in the area is the so-called " Fetta di Polenta " literally: This building is located at the intersection of Corso San Maurizio and Via Giulia di Barolo , and it is one of the most peculiar examples of Turin architecture: It was designed in by Alessandro Antonelli for his wife, Francesca Scaccabarozzi, probably because of a bet.

The curious name comes from the shape of the palace, which resembles a "slice of polenta", and also because it is painted with an ocher color.

In the surroundings, in Via Vanchiglia 8 , although in downtown and not really in Vanchiglia anymore there is another trapezoid house, albeit with less extreme design: Other notable buildings are the town public baths, eclectic building built in Corso Regina Margherita crossing Via Vanchiglia , and the Teatro della Caduta theatre, opened in in Via Michele Buniva 23 , which with its 45 seats is the smallest theater in Turin and among the smallest theatres in Europe.

In Corso Regina Margherita, another notable building is the former Opera pia Reynero , a charitable organization. The building was built in Being abandoned for a long time after it closed in , it was then occupied by the Askatasuna Social Center, a non-profit anarchic organization, hosting since then various activities such as concerts, dinners, seminars and homeless solidarity initiatives.

North of Corso Regina Margherita , district is losing the flavour and architecture typical of Turin downtown, cause a significant portion of the district was formerly occupied by factories, nowadays partially abandoned or replaced by modern buildings.

A significant example was the area occupied by gas companies between Corso Regina Margherita and the Dora river, which were partially demolished to make place to the new modern Faculty of Law building Campus "Luigi Einaudi" , designed by the architect Norman Foster.

This building was classified by the American television company CNN among the 10 most spectacular university buildings in the world.

The area hosts also a student campus. Next to the campus, a new cycling and pedestrian bridge on the Dora river was opened on 16 April , linking the campus area to Corso Verona.

Bridge is entitled to the architect Franco Mellano. Parco Colletta is a big park area touched by the two rivers of the district, which also hosts some sport facilities, mainly football fields and a swimming pool.

District is completed by the Cimitero Monumentale cemetery. This huge complex formerly known as Cimitero Generale is the largest cemetery in Turin, and among the first in Italy for the number of buried people over , It is located close to the Colletta park.

The ancient part of the cemetery rises from the main entrance of Corso Novara with his octagonal shape. Over the years there have been subsequent extensions of the central historical body in the direction of the Colletta park.

In the cemetery there is a crematory temple built in , the second largest in Italy after that of Milan one.

The Santuario della Consolata , a sanctuary much frequented by pilgrims, stands on the site of the 10th-century Monastery of St.

Both art-historical, digital image processing and analog techniques have been applied to the shroud images. A brightness map isometric display interprets differences of brightness within an image as differences of elevation — brighter patches are seen as being closer to the camera, and darker patches further away.

Our minds interpret these gradients as a "pseudo-three-dimensional image". The researchers could not replicate the effect when they attempted to transfer similar images using techniques of block print, engravings, a hot statue, and bas-relief.

If the object being photographed is lighted from the front, and a non-reflective "fog" of some sort exists between the camera and the object, then less light will reach and reflect back from the portions of the object that are farther from the lens, thus creating a contrast which is dependent on distance.

Researchers Jackson, Jumper, and Stephenson report detecting the impressions of coins placed on both eyes after a digital study in They did not find any images of flowers or coins or any other additional objects on the shroud in either photograph, they noted that the faint images identified by the Whangers were "only visible by incrementing the photographic contrast", and they concluded that these signs may be linked to protuberances in the yarn, and possibly also to the alteration and influence of the texture of the Enrie photographic negative during its development in In , in an article in Journal of Optics A , Fanti and Maggiolo reported finding a faint second face on the backside of the cloth, after the restoration.

The front image of the Turin Shroud, 1. No wrinkles or other irregularities distort the image, which is improbable if the cloth had covered the irregular form of a body.

For comparison, see oshiguma ; the making of face-prints as an artform, in Japan. In Greek and Latin letters were reported as written near the face.

The uncertain letters IBE R? He stated that the inscriptions made little grammatical or historical sense and that they did not appear on the slides that Marion and Courage indicated.

In , Barbara Frale , a paleographer in the Vatican Secret Archives , who had published two books on the Shroud of Turin reported further analysis of the text.

Frale stated the text on the Shroud reads: A study by Lorusso et al. They did not find any signs, symbols or writing on either image, and noted that these signs may be linked to protuberances in the yarn, as well possibly as to the alteration and influence of the texture of the Enrie photographic negative during its development in Many hypotheses have been formulated and tested to explain the image on the Shroud.

According to pro-authenticity authors Baldacchini and Fanti, "the body image of the Turin Shroud has not yet been explained by traditional science; so a great interest in a possible mechanism of image formation still exists", a conclusion also supported by Philip Ball.

The technique used for producing the image is, according to Walter McCrone, described in a book about medieval painting published in by Charles Lock Eastlake Methods and Materials of Painting of the Great Schools and Masters.

Eastlake describes in the chapter "Practice of Painting Generally During the XIVth Century" a special technique of painting on linen using tempera paint, which produces images with unusual transparent features—which McCrone compares to the image on the shroud.

Pro-authenticity journals have declared this hypothesis to be unsound, stating that X-ray fluorescence examination, as well as infrared thermography , did not reveal any pigment.

In , Luigi Garlaschelli, professor of organic chemistry at the University of Pavia , announced that he had made a full size reproduction of the Shroud of Turin using only medieval technologies.

Garlaschelli placed a linen sheet over a volunteer and then rubbed it with an acidic pigment. The shroud was then aged in an oven before being washed to remove the pigment.

He then added blood stains, scorches and water stains to replicate the original. The technique used by Garlaschelli included the bas relief approach described below but only for the image of the face.

The resultant image was visibly similar to the Turin Shroud, though lacking the uniformity and detail of the original.

According to the art historian Nicholas Allen, the image on the shroud was formed by a photographic technique in the 13th century. To demonstrate this, he successfully produced photographic images similar to the shroud using only techniques and materials available at the time the shroud was supposedly made.

He described his results in his PhD thesis, [] in papers published in several science journals, [] [] and in a book. Scientists Emily Craig and Randall Bresee have attempted to recreate the likenesses of the shroud through the dust-transfer technique, which could have been done by medieval arts.

They first did a carbon-dust drawing of a Jesus-like face using collagen dust on a newsprint made from wood pulp which is similar to 13th- and 14th-century paper.

They next placed the drawing on a table and covered it with a piece of linen. They then pressed the linen against the newsprint by firmly rubbing with the flat side of a wooden spoon.

By doing this they managed to create a reddish-brown image with a lifelike positive likeness of a person, a three-dimensional image and no sign of brush strokes.

Another hypothesis suggests that the Shroud may have been formed using a bas-relief sculpture. Researcher Jacques di Costanzo, noting that the Shroud image seems to have a three-dimensional quality, suggested that perhaps the image was formed using a three-dimensional object, such as a sculpture.

While wrapping a cloth around a life-sized statue would result in a distorted image, placing a cloth over a bas-relief would result in an image like the one seen on the shroud.

To demonstrate the plausibility of his hypothesis, Costanzo constructed a bas-relief of a Jesus-like face and draped wet linen over the bas-relief.

After the linen dried, he dabbed it with a mixture of ferric oxide and gelatine. The result was an image similar to that of the Shroud.

Instead of painting, it has been suggested that the bas-relief could also be heated and used to scorch an image onto the cloth.

However researcher Thibault Heimburger performed some experiments with the scorching of linen, and found that a scorch mark is only produced by direct contact with the hot object — thus producing an all-or-nothing discoloration with no graduation of color as is found in the shroud.

According to Fanti and Moroni, after comparing the histograms of different grey levels, it was found that the image obtained with a bas-relief has grey values included between 60 and levels, but it is much contrasted with wide areas of white saturation levels included between and and lacks of intermediate grey levels levels included between and The face image on the Shroud instead has grey tonalities that vary in the same values field between 60 and , but the white saturation is much less marked and the histogram is practically flat in correspondence of the intermediate grey levels levels included between and The Maillard reaction is a form of non-enzymatic browning involving an amino acid and a reducing sugar.

The cellulose fibers of the shroud are coated with a thin carbohydrate layer of starch fractions, various sugars , and other impurities.

In a paper entitled "The Shroud of Turin: The gases produced by a dead body are extremely reactive chemically and within a few hours, in an environment such as a tomb, a body starts to produce heavier amines in its tissues such as putrescine and cadaverine.

However the potential source for amines required for the reaction is a decomposing body, [91]: Mills argued that the image was formed by the chemical reaction auto-oxidation.

He noted that the image corresponds to what would have been produced by a volatile chemical if the intensity of the color change were inversely proportional to the distance from the body of a loosely draped cloth.

Since [] several researchers J. Rinaudo and others endorsed the flash-like irradiation hypothesis. It was suggested that the relatively high definition of the image details can be obtained through the energy source specifically, protonic acting from inside.

These theories do not include the scientific discussion of a method by which the energy could have been produced. During restoration in , the back of the cloth was photographed and scanned for the first time.

Giulio Fanti, a scientist at the University of Padua , wrote an article on this subject with colleagues in that envisages electrostatic corona discharge as the probable mechanism to produce the images of the body in the Shroud.

As with the front picture, it is entirely superficial, with coloration limited to the carbohydrate layer.

The images correspond to, and are in registration with, those on the other side of the cloth. No image is detectable in the reverse side of the dorsal view of the body.

Raymond Rogers criticized the theory, saying: No such effects can be observed in image fibers from the Shroud of Turin. In December , Fanti published a critical compendium of the major hypotheses regarding the formation of the body image on the shroud.

He stated that "none of them can completely explain the mysterious image". Fanti then considered corona discharge as the most probable hypothesis regarding the formation of the body image.

They demonstrated that the photochemical reactions caused by exposing linen to ultraviolet light could reproduce the main characteristics of the Shroud image, such as the shallowness of the coloration and the gradient of the color, which are not reproducible by other means.

When subsequently illuminated with a UV lamp, the irradiated linen fabrics behaved like the linen of the Shroud. They also determined that UV radiation changes the crystalline structure of cellulose in a similar manner as aging and long-duration background radiation.

Paolo Di Lazzaro, the lead researcher, indicated in an e-mail interview that " In November , F. They concluded that the rapid changes in the body image intensity are not anomalies in the manufacturing process of the linen but that they can be explained with the presence of aromas or burial ointments.

A study published in a theological journal followed a "Minimal Facts approach" to determine which hypothesis relating to the image formation process "is the most likely".

The study concluded "that the probability of the Shroud of Turin being the real shroud of Jesus of Nazareth is very high". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 22 January This article relies too much on references to primary sources.

Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. History of the Shroud of Turin.

Conservation-restoration of the Shroud of Turin. Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin. Religion portal Christianity portal Catholicism portal Italy portal.

Retrieved 6 June Some twenty years ago this ecumenical dimension of this sacred linen became very evident to me on the night of August 16, , when local judicatory leaders offered their corporate blessing to the Turin Shroud Exhibit and participated in the Evening Office of the Holy Shroud.

Radiocarbon Dating, Second Edition: Left Coast Press, , p. Explicit use of et al. Retrieved 31 July Retrieved 2 March An Archaeological Perspective, By R.

Retrieved 2 January Currie, it is "widely accepted" that "the Shroud of Turin is the single most studied artifact in human history".

Journal of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The Encyclopedia of Christian Civilization.

Retrieved 12 April Report on the Shroud of Turin. Architecture for the shroud: University of Chicago Press.

Journal of Biological Photography. Rinaldi, "Il Codice Pray", http: Componimenti poetici sulla Sindone. Bolla di papa Giulio II Carlo Borromeo a Torino The New York Times.

Retrieved 29 March Retrieved 30 March Making sense of a mystery " 31 March Retrieved 19 April Retrieved 9 May Address in Turin Cathedral Speech.

Archived from the original on 11 May Archived from the original on 11 June John Bosco - National Catholic Reporter". Retrieved 24 January Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research.

This paper is significant in that it was presented to the international radiocarbon community shortly before radiocarbon dating was performed on the shroud.

Archived from the original PDF on 4 March Retrieved 10 September Ma Fanti li ha buoni…" [Shroud: Vatican Insider in Italian.

Inchieste e interviste [Inquests and interviews]. Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 16 December National Geographic Daily News.

Retrieved 22 March Retrieved 28 July Archived from the original on 24 February Retrieved 27 February Quoted in Reginald W.

Medical World News , 22 December, p. Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 19 December The Shroud , p. A study in deception".

Skeptical Inquirer , Summer , pp. Botany of the Shroud of Turin, An addition concerning new information since the report.

Shroud of Turin Conference, , Ohio. Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage. Vol 11, University of Bologna. Is this holy relic preserved?

A Doctor at Calvary. A Forensic Inquiry , M. Journal of Imaging Science and Technology. The Great Gothic Art Fraud".

Report on the Shroud of Turin , Houghton Mifflin, Jumper, Bill Mottern, and Kenneth E. British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics.

Paulist Press, , pp. Brown 15 August Biblical Exegesis and Church Doctrine. Retrieved 24 October

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